卵巢癌/Ovarian cancer




{{Infobox disease

| Name           = 卵巢癌(人類)

| ICD10          = {{ICD10|C|56||c|51}}

| ICD9           = {{ICD9|183}}, {{ICD9|220}}

| ICDO           = varied

| Image          = mucinous_lmp_ovarian_tumour_intermed_mag.jpg

| Caption        = [[Micrograph]] of a mucinous ovarian carcinoma

| OMIM           =

| OMIM_mult      =

| MedlinePlus    = 000889

| eMedicineSubj  = med

| eMedicineTopic = 1698

| DiseasesDB     = 9418

| MeshID         = D010051


<!-- 定義及症狀 -->


<!-- Definition and Symptoms -->

Ovarian cancer is a cancer that begins in an ovary.[1] It results in abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.[2]  Early in this process, symptoms may be vague or not apparent, though  they become more likely as the cancer progresses. Symptoms may include  bloating, pelvic pain, and abdominal swelling, among others.[3] Common areas where the cancer may spread include the lining of the abdomen, lymph nodes, lungs, and liver.[4]

<!-- Cause and Diagnosis -->

The risk of ovarian cancer is higher in people who ovulate more. Thus, those who have never had children are at increased risk, as are those who begin ovulation at a younger age or reach menopause at an older age.[5] Other risk factors include hormone therapy after menopause, fertility medication, and obesity.[1][6] Factors that decrease risk include hormonal birth control, tubal ligation, and breast feeding.[6] About 10% of cases are related to inherited genetic risk, and those with the gene mutations BRCA1 or BRCA2  have about a 50% chance of developing the disease. The most common type  of ovarian cancer, comprising more than 95% of cases, is ovarian carcinoma. Five main subtypes of ovarian carcinoma occur, of which  high-grade serous is most common. These tumors are believed to start in  the cells covering the ovaries,[5] though some may form from the Fallopian tubes.[7] Less common types include germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors.[5] The diagnosis is confirmed by examination of a biopsy usually removed during surgery.[3]

<!-- 成因及診斷 -->

[[排卵]]越多的人,罹患卵巢癌的機率也會變高。所以從未產子的、較早開始排卵的,或是較晚進入更年期的人,罹患的機率都會上升[5]。其他危險因子包括[[更年期|停經]]後的{{en-link|荷爾蒙治療|hormone therapy}}、{{en-link|排卵藥物|fertility medication}},和[[肥胖症]]等等[1][6]。降低風險的方法則包括{{en-link|荷爾蒙避孕法|Hormonal contraception}}、{{link-en|輸卵管結紮術|Tubal ligation}},以及[[母乳餵養|哺乳]]等[6]。大約有1成的病例是來自遺傳風險,而{{link-en|BRCA1}}或{{link-en|BRCA2}}基因突變者,有將近一半的機會誘發此症。卵巢癌中最常見的類型是卵巢上皮細胞癌 ({{lang-en|ovarian carcinoma}}),高達95%的病例都屬於此類型。卵巢上皮細胞癌包含了五種亞型,其中高分化漿液性({{lang-en|high-grade serous}})卵巢癌是最常見的。一般認為這些腫瘤是來自卵巢表面的細胞[5],不過有些可能是在[[輸卵管]]形成[7]。比較罕見的類型則有[[生殖細胞瘤]]和[[性索基質腫瘤]][5]。要確診是哪一種類型,通常是透過對手術中移除的部分做活體切片檢察[3]。

<!-- Prevention, Treatment and Prognosis -->

Screening is not recommended in women who are at average risk, as  evidence does not support a reduction in death and the high rate of  false positive tests leads to unneeded surgery with its own risks.[8] Those at very high risk may have their ovaries removed as a preventive measure.[1]  If caught and treated in an early stage, ovarian cancer may be curable.  Treatments usually include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.[3] Outcomes depends on the extent of the disease and the subtype of cancer present.[5] The overall five-year survival rate in the United States is 45%.[9] Outcomes are worse in the developing world.[5]

<!--預防, 治療及癒後-->


<!-- Epidemiology -->

In 2012, ovarian cancer occurred in 239,000 women and resulted in  152,000 deaths worldwide. This made it the seventh-most common cancer  and the eighth-most common cause of death from cancer in women. It is  more common in North America and Europe than Africa and Asia.[5]

<!-- 流行病學 -->


2015-09-26 已整合到中文維基百科「卵巢癌 」的引言頁面